The Judiciary includes the Supreme Court, Provincial High Courts, and other
courts exercising civil and criminal jurisdiction. The Chief Justice of the Supreme
Court is appointed by the President; the other Supreme Court judges also appointed
by the President in consultation with the Chief Justice. The Chief Justice and Judges
of the Supreme Court shall remain in the office until the age of sixty-five. The Supreme
Court is original appellate and final judicial body.
Judges of the Provincial
High Courts are appointed by the President after consultation with the Chief Justice
of the Supreme Court, as well as the Governor of the Province and the respective
Chief Justice of the High Courts to which the appointment is being made. High courts
have original and appellate jurisdiction.
There is also a Federal Shariat
Court comprising eight Muslim Judges, including a Chief Justice appointed by the
In addition, there are special courts and tribunals to deal with
specific kinds of cases, such as Commercial Courts, Labour Courts, an Insurance
Appellate Tribunal, an Income Tax Appellate Tribunal, Special Courts for Bank offences
etc. There are also special courts to try terrorists. Appeals from special courts
go to High Courts except for Labour and Traffic Courts, which have their own forums
for appeal. Appeals from the tribunals go to the Supreme Court.
A further feature
of the judicial system is the office of Wafaqi Mohtasib (Ombudsman), which is provided
in the constitution. Appointed by the President, the Mohtasib holds office for four
years; the term cannot be extended or renewed. The Mohtasib's purpose is to institutionalize
a system for enforcing administrative accountability, through investigating and
rectifying any injustice done to a person through maladministration by a federal
agency or a federal government official. The Mohtasib is empowered to award compensation
to those who have suffered loss or damage as a result of maladministration.
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